Judaism and Islam From 1100 To 1300

After reconquering Toledo, Spain from the Muslims, Alphonso I invited all Jews to return: 1115

Jews from Muslim countries begin to settle in Byzantium: 1120

Records of a Jewish gate in Kiev attest to the presence of a Jewish community there: 1124

Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon; Jewish scholar): 1135-1204

Judah Halevi completes his influential philosophy of Judaism known as The Kuzari. He is a friend of commentator Abraham Ibn Ezra, who also left Spain for the life of a wandering Jewish scholar: 1139

Benjamin of Toledo, The Itinerary of Benjamin of Toledo: 1160-1173

Benjamin of Toledo writes of 40,000 Jews living in Baghdad, complete with 28 synagogues and 10 Torah academies: 1163

Saladin (1138-1193) overthrows Fatimid dynasty in Egypt: 1171

Saladin recaptures Jerusalem from Crusaders grants Jews permission to re-enter:1187

Scholar and Jewish leader Moses Ben Nachman (Nachmanides): 1194-1270

Moses Maimonides completes The Guide to the Perplexed, considered the most important work of medieval Jewish thought: 1195

A group of 300 rabbis from France and England settle in Palestine (Eretz Yisrael), beginning what might be interpreted as Zionist aliyah: 1211

The Zohar (a Jewish kabalistic book): written ca. 13th century

Death of Genghis Khan (roving Mongol conqueror): 1227

Inquisition by Christians in Spain: ca. 1230

The Jewish community of Marrakech, Morocco, is reestablished, leading to massacres of Jews caused by Islamic political revolt and grassroots hatred: 1232

Spanish Kabbalist Abraham Abulafia: 1240-1292

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