Samuil Marshak and Israel
D.Nahmanovich, a relative of Samuil Marshak living in Israel, writes: " Marshak has been very much frightened of Stalin terror, especially after the murder of Trotsky in Mexico, arrest of writers and anti-fascists-Jews, and still it...
Samuil Marshak ransferred large sums of money from funds created in Kaunas and Vilnius for boarding schools and садика for the Jewish children-orphans whose parents were lost from hands of the Nazis... I Know, that later, at the end of 1945 and in the beginning of 1946 the organization began, certainly, illegally and secretly, переправки to bring these children through Кенигсберг (Kaliningrad) to Poland, and therefrom - to Israel (then still Palestine)... Marshak again has sent the big sum of money for these purposes. Marshak was engaged in fund raising up close and checked up people... Marshak has received on these purposes of money from the general of Red Army Sladkevicha, academician Nevjazezhskogo, and also from writer Tvardovskogo " ("Circle", Tel Aviv, 1992, №759).
A friend of Samuil Marshak, V.D.Berestov, recollected: " Иммануэль Samoylovich (son Marshak. - М.Г.) Told to me, that Самуил Яковлевич saved on everything to help Jewish children to leave from Lithuania for Israel. And in general - Samuil was a very brave person. When the authorities crushed his publishing house in Leningrad in 1937 and imprisoned many friends and pupils - (Самуила Яковлевича have arrested) - Marshak rushed to Moscow, to Вышинскому, has achieved reception and has managed to get out some of the arrested persons ".... And today Marshak's name for any completely not clear reasons is still shaded.
Certificates to that Marshak has not changed to the belief, has not left from "this" theme, it is a lot of. To name his book " the Beginning of a life ", full of love to Vitebsk of his childhood, nostalgia on it enough. Юдифь Яковлевна told, that soon after war Marshak has executed translation of " Songs of a ghetto " and worked above translation of " the Jewish melodies " Byron; it dreamed to transfer 136-th псалом David, but for some reason during that time indefinitely re-read Lermontov's poem " Crying of Israel " and after each reading postponed translation псалма.
So, Marshak never left the Jewish theme. What forced it to hide, conceal these products? Whether it is possible to condemn it for it? In days of S.J.Nadsona (the end of XIX century) the word "Jew" " in lips of crowd " sounded as " a symbol отвержения ". In days of poet S.JA.Marshak it "отвержение" became others - it from "crowd" has passed to rulers of destinies, and hardly even "Marshak Sovetskogo Sojuza" presumed to repeat aloud words Надсона: " Allow to rise modestly and me in numbers of your fighters, people offended судьбою! "
To tell the truth, as against S.J.Nadsona, S.JA.Marshak there should not " be modestly in numbers " people - it always remained with it. Through all life it has carried by love to Palestin - the ancient ground of his far ancestors.
I enter into native Jerusalem (Travel to Palestin)
Let's begin with memoirs. Юдифь Яковлевна has told to me: « Самуил Яковлевич was already well-known, his early lyrical verses were praised by Alexander Blok. They liked the Sachet Black, to Jacob Godinu and other poets. Саша Black once has told Семе: " it seems to me, you will write east melodies ". Самуил Яковлевич has accepted it for a joke. But joke Саши Black appeared prophetical. Very soon, apparently, in the beginning of 1911, the brother together with poet Jacob Godinym as the correspondent of " the General newspaper " have sent to the Near East. To happiness Самуила Яковлевича there was no limit. Soon it began to send materials in the newspaper, and we read them before the publication. Were among them and verses:
For a long time I wander - in ardent pleasure
And in silent grief it is lonely.
Now I have learned full of sweet
And true antiquities the East ».
From Юдифи Яковлевны I have learned about Sofia Mihajlovne Milvidskoj. During the travel to Palestin, by a steamship, Самуил Яковлевич has got acquainted with this unusually beautiful woman, the remarkable person. After returning from travel she became his wife. The poet has devoted it many verses. First of them have been written still there, in Palestin, and the last - when Sofia Mihajlovny any more did not become:
Do not wait, that the message will submit to you to the answer
That was most dear on light.
You погрустишь three days, three years, ten years,
And before it - a way of millenia...
So it was necessary for destiny, that travel on the Sacred ground has presented Marshak true love...
Impressions from this travel were for the poet continuation of his dialogue with the Scriptus and, undoubtedly, have enriched his soul, having become a source for many fine products.
The cycle "Palestin" will consist of five poems, binding which string are the Bible and a plot of land on which the Great Book and a significant part of history of humanity was created. The meeting of the young poet with the Sacred ground casts to it many ideas and the coming to life memoirs of the childhood connected to father, shipped in sacred books and attaching to them sons, with the Vitebsk grandfather - rabbi due to whom Marshak in early years has learnt a Hebrew.
... Not plates of ancestors death
Me captivated olden time:
Having risen from ashes, Иеремия
Stood in settlement предо me.
And "Crying", that in day the ninth аба
My father slowly read,
At a modest hut of the arab
From lips of the prophet has sounded...
During Soviet time very few people knew about the Palestinian cycle of verses of S.JA.Marshak. We not time talked about these verses to Alexey, the senior grandson Samuila Jakovlevicha close by my friend. It told, how inspiredly, but the grandfather very silently read to it these verses. They, probably, ran into memory young Леше. Whether it has led Alexey Immanuelevicha алие - already at mature age it has left for Israel. Recently in the Israeli newspaper his story about the Palestinian cycle of verses Самуила Яковлевича has been printed. « They were never published during lifetime of the grandfather and not published, apparently, till now in Russia, - Alexey Immanuelevich writes. - their Small selection has left not so long ago in America... In family archives there is one, also never the published poem written shortly before travel to Palestin, it is named Marshak " From сионид ". Here a fragment from him:...
And from hills окинем a sight we a valley of Jordan Above which have flown by Multimournful centuries And above falling in desert, Пред the person of millenia In shine of a yellow decline Shall begin to sob in silence. And for the next day on a dawn there Will be with a song a daughter of people To collect flowers in a valley Where wandered Суламифь... She Will approach to breakage, Will have a look with a smile in water - And to a familiar image Jordan » Will laugh.
In Israel to me told, that in days of Six-day war on radio station " Voice of Israel " S. Ja. Marshak's poem "Jerusalem" repeatedly sounded:
On mountain regal road
I Enter into native Jerusalem
And on his sacred threshold
I Stand it is confused and immovable...
In all centuries, in any clothes
Native, sacred Jerusalem
Prebudet the same, as before -
As тverd heavenly above it!
Then in Moscow I have tried to find something on the Jewish theme in Marshak's Soviet editions. In the collection " Poems and poems " the poem " we was found lived by camp in tent ", already familiar to me under the collection " At the rivers Babylon ":
we lived camp in tent, with the Ring of hills are surrounded. Bushes dry in the disorder Were smoked, by heat are burnt. It is only vulnerable in the morning from a firmament There shout of an eagle, And in the afternoon the silent nature of the Decline magnificent was distributed waited. And not giving in heavy heat to All alive to be exhausted, Врата pleasure and rest Unexpectedly opened night. All to stars erected eyes. The breast measuredly breathed. And the traveller waited for arrival of night to continue a fixed way... And here after to a time waterless There there came a turn of rains. And the first rain fruitless Changed all edge, as the magician. It seemed, the ground covering with the Carpet, from heavenly height the moisture rain, And leaves, grasses and flowers Flew not...
In such kind this poem has been published in 1974 in " Library of the poet ". I have come to bewilderment - where key lines: In прибытья my satellite old to me has specified hour a near slope With village poor. It - Цара, Here veins in infancy Самсон. Now here work Samsonov is necessary:
Since morning up to late darkness Here drive snakes and scorpions, Shift stones, burn down bushes.
In notes it has been specified, that a poem " we lived camp in tent " is printed under the fair autograph of 1920, and in section " Other editions and variants " I have found out the full text of that, former poem remembered to me. The publication of the "old" text, even in additional section, in 1974 was in itself miracle. But that has induced or has forced in 1920 С.Я. Marshak not simply to edit for a long time the written verses, but, as a matter of fact, to write new, not having left and shadows of a hint what the question is Palestin? It is obvious, that 20-th year essentially differed from a year of 17-th. By then has received wide scope not only white, but also red terror, and frank severe rivalry of these two terrors scared hearts of intelligency. One sought safety in flight abroad, others at own will or by virtue of circumstances remained in Russia. During such time to be the author of the verses, the determined delight Palestin and the Jews who have come back in it, was already far from being safely. And to the new "variant" of a poem levelled, neutral (the truth, during lifetime of Marshak and not published), - it is possible, the role some kind of "board" was allocated.
In the Brief Jewish encyclopedia it is told: " in 1920 the poet has left the Russko-Jewish literature most многообещавший (it is allocated by me. - М.Г.) And active Zionist S. Marshak ". I cannot agree with this radical in any way (let and flatter enough) the statement. Certainly, Marshak did not renounce the Jewry, from the Jewish theme. Though, perhaps, she left in his creativity as though "deep into". It sometimes happened noticeably even in his "absolutely Soviet" verses. Jury Tynyanov, for example, discussing a line from Marshak's poem " That we shall tell, putting woods ", with pleasure spoke maliciously (and quite is proved): " This the Talmud. So spoke only меламеды in хедере: Putting woods, we actually shall tell... " Samuil Jakovelevich, despite of huge employment, constantly read the Talmud and did not imagine a life without this book. As is known, during a time of exile the Scriptus, a Torah, and then and the Talmud of steel for Jews " Palestine in diaspora ". In the most difficult years Marshak stored fidelity to that in dispersion Jews named Palestine. To it testify both his verses, and courage which it has shown during Suez crisis (in 1956). Among Jews - scientists and culture, orally and in writing condemning " the Israeli aggressors ", I have not met Marshak's name anywhere. However, whether could "condemn" the revived Israel the poet written in a youth such lines:
whether you Will come by tortures,
People - the nomad of the alien countries,
To a source of waters, to blessed zion,
How this harmonious caravan?..
Copyright H. David Marshak, All Rights Reserved